Department of Hydro and Renewable Energy,Indian Institue of Technology Roorkee
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Sediment Monitoring and Abrasion Testing Laboratory

 

 

Sediment Monitoring and Abrasion Testing Laboratory Brochure       sediment_lab_brochure_cover.jpg (39 KB)

About us

The information about the sediment properties are required for mitigation or proper handling of hydro-abrasive erosion issues due to growing focus of hydropower in Himalayan region. Hydro-abrasive erosion depends on sediment concentration, size, shape and mineral composition. The consideration of hydro-abrasive erosion issue is required in both planning stage of a hydropower project as well as the maintenance and renovation of existing hydropower projects. To study and mitigate the hydro-abrasive issues in Himalayan region, a laboratory with state of the art instrumentation is established at HRED, IIT Roorkee with support from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India and Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) Central Water Commission.

Objectives

  • Research and analysis of suspended sediment flow and its impact on hydropower components.
  • Sediment depository for Himalayan region where hydropower plants are prone to hydro-abrasive erosion
  • Research data base of hydro-abrasive erosion and its effect on components of hydropower plants-turbines, penstock etc.
  • Development of a knowledge centre to educate and train personnel to handle erosion issues effectively.
   

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Research Areas

The main research areas of the laboratory are as follows:

  • Design and improvement of sediment settling basins
  • Sediment flow dynamics and sediment flow models
  • Validation and development of hydro-abrasive erosion models
  • Relation of sediment parameters with hydro-abrasive erosion
  • Effect of hydro-abrasive erosion on efficiency reduction
  • Development of methods for quantifying suspended sediment
  • Designing turbine blades and other components for less erosion

Activities:

  • Identification of hydro-abrasive erosion affected hydropower plants in India.
  • Collection of suspended sediment samples from hydro-abrasive erosion affected hydropower plants for laboratory analysis in AHEC, IIT Roorkee.
  • Continuous measurement of suspended sediment properties at hydro-abrasive erosion affected hydropower plants.
  • Measurement of hydro-abrasive erosion in hydropower plants.
  • Measurement of efficiency loss due to hydro-abrasive erosion in hydropower plants.
  • Suspended sediment measurement before and after desilting tank to measure desilting efficiency at a plant.
  • Sediment measurement in river reaches with potential of hydropower development to assess the erosive potential and its future implications.

Hydro-abrasive Erosion Test Rig

To conduct erosion experiment on different material/coatings and develop hydro-abrasive erosion models, a circulatory test rig is available along with a stirrer for well mixing of sediments. In this set-up, two Pelton turbines having different designs were already tested. The Pelton wheel had detachable feature for ease of dismantling the buckets to measure erosion. The model Pelton turbine has 6 different materials namely 13Cr-4Ni, 16Cr-5Ni, 16Cr-4Ni martensitic steel, bronze, 13Cr-4Ni with plasma sprayed Cr2O3coating and 13Cr-4Ni with WC-Co-Cr HVOF coating. A set of Pelton buckets for different material was sponsored by Andritz Hydro for erosion testing. The set-up has the provision to conduct erosion tests for both Francis and Kaplan turbine models in addition to Pelton turbine model.

Research Projects

Monitoring hydro-abrasive erosion, suspended sediments and efficiency reduction for optimal operation -

  1. Allain Duhangan Hydropower Plant (2X96 MW) with Pelton Turbines (Completed)
  2. Baira Siul Hydropower Plant (3X60 MW) with Francis Turbines (Ongoing)

 

Facilities

Online Laser Diffraction Sediment Sensor (LISST-Infinite)
Make: Sequoia, USA
Measuring parameters: Sediment size and concentration continuously
Specification: PSD: 32 log-spaced size classes, 2.5 to 500 µm size range, SSC: Up to 30,000 ppm (mg/l)
     
Online multi-frequency acoustic sensor (Both AQUASCAT 1000R& AQUASCAT 1000S Models)
Make: Aquatek, UK
Measuring parameters: Sediment size and concentration continuously
Specification: PSD: 20 μm to 500 μm SSC: 0.01 g/l to 20 g/l over 1 m
     
Portable Online Turbidity and suspended solids Sensor (Solitax)
Make: Hach, USA
Measuring parameters: Turbidity and suspended sediment concentration continuously
Specification: (0.001 to 4000) NTU, 0.001 mg/L to 50 g/L)
     
Online Turbidity and Suspended Solids Sensor for use in Open Channels (VisoTurb 700 IQ)
Make: Xylem (YSI), USA
Measuring parameters: Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Specification: Turbidity: Upto 4000 NTU/FNU
TSS: Up to 400 g/L
   

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Sediment Size and Shape Analyser (Camsizer)
Make: Retsch Technology GmbH, Germany
Measuring parameters: Sediment size and shape distributions
Specification: PSD: 0 to 3000 μm
Shape: Aspect ratio, roundness etc.
     
3D Scanner system tripod based (COMET L3D) - Camera, Positioning System, Additional Field of View, Geomagic Design X Software
Make: Carl Zeiss Optotechnik GmbH, Germany
Measuring parameters: 3D Scanning of turbine and other plant components for erosion and analysis of scanned components
Specification: Recommended part size range: 0.1 to 4 m
Accuracy: 20 μm
     
Portable Hand Held 3D Scanner (HandySCAN 700)
Make: Creaform Inc., Canada
Measuring parameters: Erosion in turbine and other plant components
Specification: Resolution: 50 μm
Recommended part size range: 0.1 to 4 m
     
Surface Roughness Tester (SurfTest SJ-411)
Make: Mitutoyo Pvt. Ltd., Japan
Measuring parameters: Surface roughness, Effect of erosion in turbine and other plant components
Specification: Measuring range: X-axis 25 mm, Z-axis 800 μm, Resolution: 0.000125 μm
     
Sieve Analyser (Analysette 3 Pro)
Make: Fritsch GmbH, Germany
Measuring parameters: Sediment size analysis
Specification: Both dry and wet sieving
Precision sieves: 20 μm to 1 mm
     
Portable Laser Diffraction Sediment Sensor (LISST-Portable XR)
Make: Sequoia, USA
Measuring parameters: Sediment size distribution and concentration
Specification: PSD: 0.34 to 500 µm size range in 44 log-spaced size classes
SSC: 30 to 1,900 mg/l
     
Portable Laser Diffraction Sediment Sensor (LISST-Portable)
Make: Sequoia, USA
Measuring parameters: Sediment size and concentration
Specification: PSD: 32 log-spaced size classes, 1.25 to 250 µm size range
SSC: Up to 5,000 ppm (mg/l)

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Publications

  • Journals
    1. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A., Staubli, T. and Xiao, Y. X. (2020) “Interpretation and application of the hydro-abrasive erosion model from IEC 62364 (2013) for Pelton turbines”, Renewable Energy, Volume 160, pp 396-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.06.117
    2. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2020) “Effect of concentration and size of sediments on hydro-abrasive erosion of Pelton buckets”, Renewable Energy, Volume 145, pp 893-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.012
    3. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2019) “Analytical modelling and mechanism of hydro-abrasive erosion in Pelton buckets”, Wear, Volumes 436–437, 203003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2019.203003
    4. Rai, A. K. and Kumar, A. (2019) “Determination of the particle load based on detailed suspended sediment measurements in a hydropower plant”, International Journal of Sediment Research, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 409-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2019.04.001
    5. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2019) “Optimization of hydropower plants regarding hydro-abrasive erosion” International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, Volume 12, No. 2 (April-June), pp. 119-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.5293/IJFMS.2019.12.2.119
    6. Arora, N. and Kumar, A. (2018). Performance Analysis of Trench Weirs. International Association for Small Hydro (IASH) Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, July 2018, pp 13 – 24.
    7. Rai, A. K. and Kumar, A. (2018). Measurements and financial analysis for Hydro-abrasive erosion in hydropower plants. International Association for Small Hydro (IASH) Journal, Vol. 7 No. 1 (January) p. 3-10.
    8. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2017) “Hydro-abrasive erosion in Pelton buckets: Classification and field study”, Wear, Volumes 392–393, pp 8–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.08.016
    9. Rai, A. K. and Kumar, A. (2017) “Sediment monitoring for hydro-abrasive erosion: A field study from Himalayas, India”, International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, Volume 10, No. 2 (April-June), pp. 146-153. http://doi.org/10.5293/IJFMS.2017.10.2.146
    10. Rai, A. K. and Kumar, A. (2016) “Analyzing hydro abrasive erosion in Kaplan turbine: A case study from India”, Journal of Hydrodynamics, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 863–872. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(16)60687-X
    11. Rai, A. K. and Kumar, A. (2015) “Continuous Measurement of Suspended Sediment Concentration: Technological Advancement and Future Outlook”, Measurement, Volume 76, pp 209–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2015.08.013
  • Conferences
    1. Arora, N., Kumar, A. and Rai, A. K. (2021) “Online Sediment Measurement Strategy For Hydro Power Plants”, 6th IAHR Europe Congress, February 15-18, 2021 at Warsaw, Poland (Accepted).
    2. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2019) “Financial analysis for optimization of hydropower plants regarding hydro-abrasive erosion: A study from Indian Himalayas”, 29th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems – September 16-21, 2018 at Kyoto, Japan. Published in IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 240 (2019) 022025. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/240/2/022025
    3. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2018) “Design and verification of a model Pelton turbine rig for hydro-abrasive erosion testing”, Current Research in Hydraulic Turbine (CRHT-VIII’18) – March 20, 2018 at Turbine Testing Lab, Kathmandu University, Kathmandu, Nepal. http://old.ku.edu.np/ttl/images/CRHT-VIII/Papers/Anant.pdf
    4. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2016) “Forces acting on particles in a Pelton bucket and similarity considerations for erosion”, 28th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems – July 4-8, 2016 at Grenoble, France, (pp – 917 – 926). Published in IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 49 (2016) 122002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/49/12/122002
    5. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A., Hies, T. and Nguyen, H. H. (2016) “Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India”, 28th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems – July 4-8, 2016 at Grenoble, France, (pp – 1037 – 1046). Published in IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 49 (2016) 122004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/49/12/122004
    6. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2015) “Developing a test rig to measure hydro-abrasive erosion in Pelton turbine”, International Conference on Hydropower for Sustainable Development, Feb 05-07, 2015, Dehradun, India.
    7. Rai, A. K., Kumar, A. and Staubli T. (2014) “An innovative approach to measure hydro-abrasive erosion in Pelton turbine”, International Conference on Environment and Energy (ICEE-2014) - December 15-17, 2014 at Hyderabad, India.

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People

  • Head of Laboratory
  Prof Arun Kumar                                                                                           
  • Researchers Association
  Dr. Anant Kumar Rai
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department, NIT Warangal
Areas of Interest: Fluid mechanics, Hydraulic turbines, Turbomachinery, Hydropower, Renewable Energy, Material wear testing, Sediment Transport
E-mail : anantkrai@gmail.com, anant@nitw.ac.in
     
  • Research Fellow
  Naman Arora
Research Associate
Specialization: Hydraulic structures, SHP Planning and Design, Sediment and flow measurements
E-mail : namana649@gmail.com

Your suggestions, data and possible utilization of facilities by you are solicited.

Department of Hydro and Renewable Energy,
(formerly Alternate Hydro Energy Centre),
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,
Roorkee-247667, Uttarakhand, India
Tel : +91 1332 285821, 286136
Fax : +91 1332 273517, 273560
E-mail : sediment-erosion@hre.iitr.ac.in, arun.kumar@hre.iitr.ac.in

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